Why don't users pay for new features or new products after working hard and busy? How to deal with the vast demands? Every time the requirements review was conducted, there was a lot of eloquence, but opposition opinions followed one after another. The main reason why these situations occur is that the requirements analysis has not been done well and has not been done thoroughly.
What is needs analysis?
Requirement analysis, to understand by name is the analysis of requirements. So for demand analysis, let's first talk about where the demand comes from. Requirements usually come from the three aspects of the company (boss, other departments, colleagues), product managers themselves (planning, mining), and external (users, customers, partners).
To put it in human terms, demand analysis is to summarize demand analysis, sum up what needs to be done, why to do, how to do and which needs to not be done, postponement, why can’t be done, and why postponement.
How to do needs analysis?
There are four main steps in the requirements analysis:
Understand the needs
The first step after the demand comes is to first understand the demand, you can only analyze the demand if you understand the demand. There are two main tasks to understand requirements. The first is to describe the requirements, and the second is to classify the requirements.
The requirement description is first to reproduce the requirement scenario, which can better help the product manager to interpret the requirements; the second purpose is to communicate with the team. With a standardized and unified requirement description, team members can understand the general situation at a glance and reduce Cost of communication.
Demand classification can more quickly categorize requirements roughly. Generally speaking, demand categories can be divided into functional, data, operation, experience, design, etc. The vast majority of needs can be divided into these 5 categories. For example, if an e-commerce festival wants to make a small game, this is an operational requirement. Apple recently wants to add VR navigation to the map navigation, which can belong to the experience category.
Many companies now use demand cards or demand pools to manage demand. This step is to understand demand.
Thinking about demand positioning is carried out in three dimensions: corporate strategy, product positioning, and user needs.
Every company has a corporate strategy. Although the corporate strategy is a bit fictitious, it can help product managers find the scope of reference for products and requirements and the ability to support resources. The reference range of products and requirements can be evaluated according to the strategic phases. The common strategic phases are divided into three phases: initiation, development, and iteration. The main appeal of the initial stage is to realize the product quickly. At this stage, the requirements for core functions will have the highest priority, and the purpose is to verify the feasibility of the product in the market. The main appeal of the development stage is to improve the basic functions. At this stage, other functions will be added on the basis of the core functions to expand the usage scenarios and scope. Usually, a small range of trial and error will be carried out at this stage. The third stage is iteration. When it comes to the iteration stage, the product has entered a mature stage. At this stage, the product will pay more attention to the optimization of experience.
The ability to support resources is easier to understand. If the current product is the focus of the company's strategy, then the boss will give you more people and funds. In fact, strategy can be seen as a big environment for making products. You must first understand it, because your next work is carried out on the basis of this big environment.
Product positioning is to determine the nature of the demand. For example, for a takeaway application, there is a demand to buy clothes in the app. For product positioning, this demand does not meet, so it will be filtered out. Product positioning is actually to define functions, so it is more oriented towards functions, while the corporate strategy mentioned earlier is more oriented towards the market.
User needs are the needs put forward by real users. We can't blindly listen to what users say and just do for them. The vast majority of user needs need to be transformed. There are four conversion methods. To improve the status quo, the most commonly used one is to add a certain function to satisfy users. To reduce expectations, through communication means, to promote to users that other homes are not as good as ours, and reduce users' expectations. Transfer demand, office buildings and other elevators are too slow, users want to make the elevator faster, and put a billboard at the elevator entrance, or show climbing stairs, publicizing that climbing stairs can exercise, lose weight, and protect the environment. Change the user's attention from waiting for the elevator to watching advertisements and exercising.
There are two points to pay attention to when transforming needs. The first point is that needs are not needs. When users express what they want to you, they often fail to recognize what their real needs are for various reasons. Speak out needs as needs. But the demand behind it is possible for the product manager to dig deep to find it. The second point, do not regard the product form as the essence of the product. What the product manager has to do is to optimize and innovate the essence of the product. Most of the innovations in product form are the “user needs” type requirements mentioned before. For example, in the Ford classic example, the user said that I want a batch of faster horses. The horses are actually the product form, and the essence of the product depends on the horse. It is actually a kind of transportation. And for faster horses, what needs to be solved is the problems encountered by users in geographic migration.
Needs assessment is to assess the difficulty of realizing requirements. For the initial assessment, it is mainly the technical realization cost. The unit usually used in this area is "person day". 100 person days means 100 people for one day, or 1 person for 100 days.
It should be noted that for the initial evaluation, because the plan has not yet been determined, it is only a rough scope of evaluation. You can usually find an experienced project manager or developer to help with the evaluation. When the later plan is determined, it needs to be evaluated in detail according to the specific implementation method.
According to the information compiled above, the needs are divided into four levels: important and urgently needed, not important but urgently needed, important but not urgently needed, and not important nor urgently needed.
How to judge whether it is important, here is a relatively simple solution. If the product is not yet online, the importance can be assigned according to basic needs> expected needs> exciting needs. The basic demand is the core demand of the product, the expected demand is the demand expected by the user, and the excited demand refers to the demand that the user did not expect, but the user will exceed the expected demand.
For online products, it can be based on: importance = percentage of users who use function * percentage of usage times * percentage of category importance. Expected demand can be set at 50%, and excited demand can be set at 25%. Use algebraic calculations to roughly determine the importance of the product. In short, give priority to a large number of high-frequency requirements, and a small amount of low-frequency requirements.
Through the four steps of understanding demand, demand positioning, demand assessment, and demand grading, demand analysis makes it easier for demand to return to the essence of business, and from the perspective of corporate strategy, product managers pay more attention to business and fit the company's strategy. At the same time, upgrading and iterating in stages will give the product a sense of rhythm. Even if there is a lot of demand, it will not be panicked because of the large number. As long as it is sorted out, similar ones can be put together to improve efficiency.
Through the demand analysis of the above four processes, the product manager's macroscopic thinking ability can be exercised, and it can also be determined, avoid divergent thinking, and be more purposeful. This is also the only way to a more senior product manager.